Tag Archives: year

Bomber’s brother ‘was plotting terror act in the UK’

Abu Musa al-BritaniImage copyright Other
Image caption The court was told Mohammed Awan’s brother Rizwan appeared to have joined the Islamic State (IS) group

The brother of a suicide bomber killed in Iraq was caught by police preparing to commit an act of terrorism in the UK, a court has heard.

Mohammed Awan, 24, was arrested days after buying 500 ball bearings, and possessed extremist material advising they could be used in home-made bombs.

It is alleged the dentistry student from Huddersfield owned a guide book on how to form a sleeper cell in the West.

His brother Rizwan Awan killed dozens in a bomb blast in Iraq in 2016.

Sheffield Crown Court was told Rizwan had travelled from Manchester to Istanbul on 17 May, 2015 and appeared to have joined the Islamic State (IS) group.

Image caption Anti-terror police carried out a raid at the family home in Huddersfield

The court heard anti-terror police swooped on 1 June this year after Awan, a Sheffield University student, had bought a bag of ball bearings on the internet.

They were delivered to the family home in Rudding Street, Huddersfield.

More material was discovered during a raid at his flat in Sheffield, including a terrorist publication titled ‘How to Survive in the West’ which was found on a memory stick headed ‘My Stuff’.

The court was told the document is a guide book on how to create a sleeper cell, including advice on using ball bearings as shrapnel and how to make bombs.

A review of images and audio files taken from a mobile phone included pictures of the Boston marathon bombing and a man wearing an orange jumpsuit about to be executed.

Awan claimed the memory stick belonged to his dead brother and he had kept it for sentimental reasons.

But the prosecution said Rizwan Awan’s own digital services had been reset to factory settings and wiped clean before he left the country.

Mohammed Awan denies preparing an act of terrorism and two charges of possessing terrorist-related documents.

The trial continues.


Obituary: Rodney Bewes

Rodney Bewes

Rodney Bewes, who has died aged 79, found fame as the aspirational Bob in the BBC sitcom The Likely Lads.

Teaming Bewes with fellow actor, James Bolam, it regularly drew audiences of more than 20 million.

Despite the success of a sequel, the two fell out in spectacular style – effectively ending the chance of the series being continued.

It turned out to be the peak of Bewes’s career and he later found himself reduced to playing a series of less distinguished roles.

Rodney Bewes was born in Bingley, Yorkshire, on 27 November 1937.

His family later moved to Luton in Bedfordshire where his schooling was often interrupted by ill-health.

He answered a newspaper letter from a BBC producer asking for children to appear in the Corporation’s Children’s Hour.

Image copyright Rex Features
Image caption He appeared alongside his friend Tom Courtenay in Billy Liar

By the age of 14 he had appeared in a number of BBC TV productions including a role as Joe in a 1952 adaptation of The Pickwick Papers. He also secured a place at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art’s preparatory school.

“All the kids were posh and they were the children of actors in the West End of London and I’m just this boy from Bingley, near Bradford, and broad Yorkshire,” he later recalled.

After completing his National Service in the RAF he returned to Rada. He financed his studies by washing up in hotels at night, something that caused him to fall asleep during the day which culminated in him being asked to leave the Academy.

He managed to secure some small stage roles, as well as parts in TV productions including Dixon of Dock Green, Emergency Ward 10 and Z Cars.


He made his film debut in 1962 in Prize of Arms, a yarn about a gang which attempts to rob an army payroll convoy. The film is notable for early performances by a number of later well-known actors including Tom Bell, Jack May, Michael Ripper and Fulton Mackay.

A year later he secured the role of Arthur Crabtree in Billy Liar, alongside his friend, Tom Courtenay.

It was the age of British cinema’s so-called ‘new wave’ when filmmakers were turning their attention to gritty working-class dramas and desperate for actors with regional accents.

Image caption There was a brief spell as straight man for Basil Brush

Despite Bewes hailing from Yorkshire, rather than Tyneside, he was cast as Bob Ferris in The Likely Lads, a sitcom conceived by Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais.

His aspirational character was in direct contrast to that of his friend, Terry Collier, the workshy, cynical figure played by James Bolam. Much of the comedy revolved around Bob’s attempts to become middle-class in the face of constant derision from Terry.

The final series ended in 1966 and Bewes played a number of TV parts and was also in films including Man in a Suitcase, Spring and Port Wine and a star-studded musical version of Alice in Wonderland in which he played the Knave of Hearts.

He spent a year as ‘Mr Rodney’ who was one of a series of stooges for the puppet, Basil Brush, before creating and starring in the ITV sitcom, Dear Mother… Love Albert. It showcased his skills as a scriptwriter and proved to be popular with audiences.


In 1973 he teamed up with James Bolam again for Whatever Happened to the Likely Lads, a sequel to the original series.

The series saw Bolam’s character Terry return from his time away in the army to discover that Bewes’s Bob has bought his own house, secured a managerial job and is engaged to the boss‘s daughter.

Off stage the pair enjoyed a warm relationship. “We were great friends,” said Bewes. “When my babies were born, his was the first house I went to.”

In 1975 there was a film spin-off which proved to be the last time the pair worked together. Bolam was famous for guarding his privacy and was furious when Bewes let slip to a newspaper that Bolam’s wife, the actress Susan Jameson, was pregnant.

Image caption Whatever Happened to the Likely Lads was even more successful than the original series

After a fraught phone call the two did not speak to each other again. Bolam was so incensed that he refused to appear on an edition of This Is Your Life, which featured his former acting partner.

“It’s this actor’s ego thing: he thinks he is important,” Bewes once said. “Actors aren’t important. I’m not important; I have fun. I think Jimmy takes himself very seriously as an actor.”

Bewes’ acting career never again scaled the heights of Likely Lads. There were bit parts in the films Jabberwocky and The Wildcats of St Trinians and he was able to use his abilities as a serious actor in a 1980 TV adaptation of the Restoration play, ‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore.


Earlier in his career he had appeared in productions of She Stoops to Conquer and there was a role in a 1984 production of George Gascoigne’s play Big in Brazil at the Old Vic Theatre in London, with Prunella Scales and Timothy West.

In the same year he also appeared in a Doctor Who story entitled Resurrection of the Daleks. It was one of his last significant appearances on the small screen.

He had some stage success with his one-man shows, Three Men in a Boat and Diary of a Nobody, which he toured for more than a decade. He won a Stella Artois Prize for the former at the 1997 Edinburgh Festival.

Image caption His role in Resurrection of the Daleks was one of his last TV appearances

His wife, the designer Daphne Black, whom he married in 1973, acted as his helper, setting up the stage and the props for his various performances.

Bewes never gave up on the idea of a revival of The Likely Lads, feeling that the characters were still relevant 40 years on.

“Instead of being the Likely Lads, we’d have been the Unlikeliest Granddads, he said. “We would have been sitting on a park bench in a pair of grubby grey anoraks, feeding the pigeons and grumping about youngsters.”

Seeking support

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Media caption‘I would have died without Help to Rent’

For Steve, homelessness started when his relationship broke down.

He moved into shared accommodation and after going into hospital with pneumonia he came home to find the landlord changing the locks.

Soon he was on the streets.

“People think if you’re homeless you must be some kind of addict or a bad person,” he says. “But it takes such a little spark to cause the fire of homelessness. And trying to find help is actually quite hard because it’s not that well signposted.”

Councils have a legal duty to help families, pregnant women and other vulnerable people who find themselves homeless. But as a single man Steve did not qualify as “priority need” and the private rented sector was the most viable option.

Image caption A Help to Rent scheme helped Steve find a long-term home.

But renting in the private sector is expensive.

With most landlords requiring a deposit, a month’s rent in advance and agency fees of up to £350 the costs add up.

Research by homelessness charity Crisis found these upfront costs can range from around £900 for shared accommodation in Yorkshire to over £2,000 for a one-bed flat in London.

This would be a significant amount for anyone, but for someone who is homeless it can be an insurmountable barrier.

This is on top of the fact that most landlords are unwilling to rent to someone on benefits, let alone someone who is homeless – research by Crisis found only 20% of landlords would be willing to let to homeless people.

Eventually Steve was put in touch with a charity in Elmbridge, Surrey, an area he knew.

Elmbridge is in Chancellor Philip Hammond‘s constituency and is one of the most expensive postcodes in the country. Rents and therefore deposits are very high.

Owning virtually nothing except for a few clothes, Steve had little hope of getting the money together for a deposit to rent.

Elmbridge Rentstart helped him find a suitable home and provided a six month bond on his deposit, as well as paying the first month’s rent.

Instead of a cash deposit the charity provides a guarantee to the landlord to cover any damage to the property or unpaid rent, removing the financial risk.

If there is any damage to the property at the end of a tenancy the charity either tries to rectify the issue using volunteers, for example through redecorating, or will pay the landlord directly.

However, they found with the right support deposit deductions tend to be low.

Long-term solution

Rentstart also provided support to help Steve understand the process and the benefits he was entitled to.

“Without Rentstart’s help I would probably have been dead,” he said.

“I wouldn’t have known where to start looking for benefits. I wouldn’t have even known benefits were available. I would have been on the streets in the winter and I probably wouldn’t have seen the winter through.”

The scheme aims to find a long-term solution, matching tenants to suitable homes and providing ongoing support.

“I’ve been living here for four years. And it’s because they did their research,” he explains.

“They didn’t just say ‘well you’re homeless, you’re going here’. I knew the area, I knew the people and I knew where to look for work. I had connections.”

Image caption Chief Executive of Elmbridge Rentstart Helen Watson backs a government-funded rent deposit scheme.

Ahead of the Budget, Crisis is calling for the government to fund more Help to Rent schemes like the one in Elmbridge and a national rent deposit scheme.

This would provide a commitment from the government to guarantee a deposit for tenants who can’t afford to pay one upfront.

A spokesperson for the Department for Communities and Local Government said it was investing £950m up to 2020 to reduce homelessness and a further £2bn in affordable housing.

But Helen Watson, Chief Executive of Elmbridge Rentstart, said a government-funded rent deposit scheme would make a huge difference to organisations like hers.

“It would mean the really limited resources we have to hold to have our own bond scheme would be freed up to house more people in other ways,” she says.

The Westminster Policy Institute estimated funding the scheme would cost £31m a year. But Crisis says the long-term annual savings could be up to £595m, by taking pressure off local authority services and preventing people becoming homeless, allowing them to move off benefits and back into work.

The Homelessness Reduction Act, which comes into force next year, places extra responsibilities on councils to prevent homelessness. Crisis says Help to Rent would help homeless people into the private rented sector, taking the pressure of councils.

Immediate help

Helen Watson acknowledges the need for more social housing but says the private rented sector could also offer solutions.

“With the private rented sector you can pick where you want to live. So if you’ve got problems in a particular area because the network’s not good and you’re trying to recover from a drug or alcohol problem, somewhere else, perhaps where you can find work, is a really good solution,” she says.

“Of course we need more social housing but the private rented sector is a good solution when it’s properly managed by the right sort of organisation.”

Tom Say, a senior campaigns officer at Crisis, agrees.

“We absolutely need to build more social housing but that’s a long term goal. It will take years to build that new housing to get the stock we need,” he said.

“There are homeless people that need help right now and this is a quick way for the government to help those people.”

Steve now works for Elmbridge Rentstart himself, spending his evenings locating homeless people in the area who might be in need of help. He says the Help to Rent scheme changed his life.

“Without the support and guidance it gave me, I’d be worse off than the guys I go out and help.”

Charles Bronson refused parole at HMP Wakefield

Charles Bronson in 1992Image copyright PA
Image caption Charles Bronson in 1992 – that year, he spent 53 days outside prison before being arrested again

One of the UK‘s most violent prisoners, Charles Bronson has been refused parole.

A board ruled that Bronson, now called Charles Salvador, should not be released from HMP Wakefield or moved to an open prison.

The 63-year-old is serving a life sentence for robbery and kidnap and has gained notoriety for a history of violence inside and outside jail.

He must now wait another two years for a review of his case.

Bronson’s bride: ‘We’re very similar creatures’

Luton-born Bronson recently got married to former Emmerdale and Coronation Street actress Paula Williamson inside the West Yorkshire prison.

Image copyright BBC, Paula Williamson
Image caption Paula Williamson wrote to Bronson in 2013 after reading his book on living in Broadmoor psychiatric hospital

Speaking after the decision, his 37-year-old wife said: “He’s not going to be released any time soon.”

She told Talk Radio: “Charlie has admitted his wrongdoings and he’s served his time for every single offence that he’s committed, and well over that time, and it’s time now for him to move forward. He’s an OAP.”

Bronson’s jail history

  • 1974 First jailed, age 22, for armed robbery and wounding
  • 1975 Attacked a fellow prisoner with a glass jug
  • 1985 Carried out a three-day rooftop protest
  • 1988 Returned to prison for robbing a jewellery shop
  • 1992 Released, but found guilty shortly afterwards of conspiracy to rob
  • 1994 Holds a prison librarian hostage, demanding a helicopter and tea
  • 1998 Takes three inmates hostage at Belmarsh
  • 1999 Given a life sentence with a three-year tariff for kidnapping
  • 2014 Assaulted prison governor Alan Parkins

The parole hearing was on 7 November.

A Parole Board spokesman said: “We can confirm that a panel of the Parole Board has not directed the release of Charles Salvador.

“Under current legislation, Mr Salvador will be eligible for a further review within two years. The date of the next review will be set by the Ministry of Justice.”

Graduate with 2:1 sues Oxford for £1m

Oxford University
Image caption Faiz Siddiqui is suing Oxford university for £1m in damages

An Oxford graduate’s failure to get a top degree cost him a lucrative legal career, the High Court has heard.

Faiz Siddiqui alleges “inadequate” teaching on his modern history course resulted in him getting a low upper second degree in June 2000.

He blames staff being absent on sabbatical leave and is suing the university for £1m.

Oxford denies negligence and causation and says the case is “massively” outside the legal time limit.

Mr Siddiqui also alleges medical information about him was not submitted to examiners by a tutor.

The 39-year-old studied at Brasenose College and singled out the teaching on the Indian special subject part of his course for criticism.

‘A huge disappointment’

His counsel Roger Mallalieu told Mr Justice Foskett that Mr Siddiqui had been a “driven young man” aiming at a postgraduate qualification at an Ivy League university.

He said: “Whilst a 2:1 degree from Oxford might rightly seem like a tremendous achievement to most, it fell significantly short of Mr Siddiqui’s expectations and was, to him, a huge disappointment.”

Mr Mallalieu said his employment history in legal and tax roles was “frankly poor” and he was now unemployed, rather than having a career at the tax bar in England or a major US law firm.

Mr Siddiqui also said his clinical depression and insomnia have been significantly exacerbated by his “inexplicable failure”.

Julian Milford, for Oxford University, told the court Mr Siddiqui complained about insufficient resources, but had only described the teaching as “a little bit dull”.

He added the student received exactly the same amount of teaching as he would have in any other year.

The seven-day hearing is concerned only with liability – with damages to be assessed later if Mr Siddiqui succeeds.

New Northern penalty fares will tackle ticket evaders on the Airedale and Wharfedale lines

ANYONE caught without a train ticket on the Airedale and Wharfedale line could face a penalty fare of £20 from next month.

Train operator Northern is getting ready for the latest phase of a campaign to get all its customers to buy their tickets before they get on board.

The penalty fares system that is already in motion in other parts of the country, will start on the district lines from December 6.

It means any customers travelling without a ticket on a Northern train from that date anywhere between Leeds and Bradford Forster Square, Leeds/Bradford and Ilkley, or Leeds/Bradford and Skipton, could be penalised on the spot.

Posters are going up at stations and leaflets will be handed out to rail passengers to explain all about it.

Tim Calow, chairman of the Aire Valley Rail User’s Group said in principle it is important to stop people without paying but more ticket machines were needed at stations first.

“There are some stations such as Silsden and Steeton where there is only one machine, a five minute walk from other platforms and in Cononley people from the village wanting to go to Skipton will have to cross the level crossing twice to get a ticket first.

“I’ve had e-mails from Northern saying they plan to put in more machines but I doubt it will happen before December 6.”

Paul Barnfield, Regional Director for Northern, said: “The penalty fares are a natural extension of the Buy Before You Board Campaign we launched last year.

“Sadly there is still a minority who believe they have a right to travel without buying a ticket.

“Their actions reduce the overall income of the rail industry and, as a result, reduces the money available to invest in further improvements to the railway.

“Everyone who travels by train should have a valid ticket or pass. Or must be able to demonstrate they have made every effort to buy a ticket before they boarded.

“If they are unable to do either of these then, from December 6, our authorised collectors will be on hand at stations along the routes to either issue £20 fines or ask customers to pay double the cost of a single ticket to their destination.”

Penalty fares have been used by a number of train operators across the country for more than 20 years. The scheme works to a national set of rules which include signs and warning notices at stations. There is also a clear appeals process which has been tried and tested by the industry. Go to to find out more.

Anger as ‘mindless vandals’ damage rugby pitch

OTLEY Rugby Club is offering a £300 reward to catch vandals who have ruined one of its pitches.

The incident – caught on CCTV by the nearby Stephen H Smith’s Garden Centre – happened just after 10pm on Thursday.

Two vehicles went onto the playing and training field, off Pool Road, and proceeded to repeatedly drive over it, leaving deep ruts.

The rugby club, which has reported the attack to the police, says the damage has put the pitch out of action for a long time and left it facing a hefty repair bill.

The club has also put a reward notice up on social media, addressed directly to those responsible, in a bid to track them down.

It says: “£300 REWARD!

“I know you probably have nothing else to do and it is very exciting driving a car round a field but you have ruined the pitch where children, possibly your brother or sister, plays rugby.

“It will cost many hundreds of pounds to put right and that is why we are going to the police.

“The garden centre has you on CCTV and someone knows who you are – that is why we are offering the reward.”

Chairman Nick Girling said: “The CCTV at Stephen H Smith’s shows what looks like a Fiat 500 and a small 4×4 driving down the lane next to their premises, towards our back training pitch.

“Local residents heard the vehicles at about 10.15pm, on Thursday night but by the time we were able to get there the culprits had gone.

“The pitch is next to the garden centre, set back from the road, and is used for both senior and junior matches and training – but this damage will take about a year to repair itself.

“The police have been informed.”

Otley Town Council Chair Councillor Ray Georgeson (Lib Dem, Danefield) said: “I share the anger expressed by Otley Rugby Club at this act of mindless vandalism.

“That pitch is so well used by our community, providing great opportunity for children to have well organised, fun sport.

“I hope those responsible are quickly identified and brought to book.”

Otley residents have also been quick to express their condemnation of the vandalism online.

Posting on the Otley – The Community We Live In Facebook page, Suzanne Freer said: “Oh this so saddens me.

“Good people spend a lot of their free time working hard to get pitches in order for others to enjoy and then someone comes along and within seconds it is ruined.

“Really hope you catch him and name and shame him/ her/them.

“Come on you good folk of Otley, someone knows who’s done this.”

Simon Fisher added: “Make them repair the field when they are found, out of their own pocket and time.”

Peace fair to welcome 10,000th visitor

AN annual Peace and Crafts Fair is expected to welcome its 10,000th visitor on Saturday.

Held in Saltaire’s Victoria Hall and organised by the Yorkshire Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, the event is in its 14th year, and will run from 10am to 4pm.

There will be 80 stalls featuring work by local artists and crafters, charities and campaign groups. There will also be food, live music through the day and an ethical Santa’s Grotto.

Catherine Bell from the group said: “Our Peace and Craft Fair has become a Saltaire institution, and has grown in popularity over the years.

“From our records, this year we will hit the 10,000th visitor, probably at some point mid-morning, and that person will receive a special gift to mark that milestone.

“We’re delighted to have a Santa’s Grotto that is a bit different.”

Drug made student ‘think he could fly’

Thomas MillwardImage copyright Millward family/PA
Image caption Thomas Millward died of a brain injury the day after he fell from a stairwell at Girton College

A Cambridge University student fell to his death after taking a drug which can make users believe they can fly, an inquest has heard.

Thomas Millward, 19, was found unconscious and naked after falling from a stairwell at Girton College on 5 March last year.

He is thought to have taken a variant of hallucinogenic LSD beforehand, an inquest in Huntingdon heard.

Mr Millward died in hospital the next day of a traumatic brain injury.

Cambridgeshire assistant coroner Simon Milburn said the engineering student and his girlfriend Daniella Mieloszyk took a substance which was probably 1P-LSD, a legal high at the time which has since been banned.

A toxicology expert told the court that people can believe they can fly after taking the drug.

Mr Milburn said the couple took the drug at around 15:00 GMT and Mr Millward was found to have fallen four hours later.

More Cambridgeshire stories

Fellow Cambridge student Tessa Duff, 20, told the court Ms Mieloszyk had previously mentioned to her that the couple had considered taking drugs.

“After that, neither of them mentioned it to me again until they knocked on my door after they had already taken it,” she told the inquest in Huntingdon.

She said their condition “wasn’t particularly alarming”, but “they just seemed confused”.

“If I tried to engage with them they would partially respond then look at me, and look at each other, and say ‘this is so strange, is this real?'” she said.

Image copyright Rodney Burton/Geograph
Image caption Mr Millward, from Cheltenham, was a first year engineering student at Girton College

After about 45 minutes the pair returned to Mr Millward’s room, she said.

She later heard an “echoey bang” but she stayed in her room, the inquest heard.


Dr Susan Paterson, head of toxicology at Imperial College, London, said analysis of blood samples showed Mr Millward had taken either LSD or 1P-LSD.

But, she said, it was not possible to determine which drug had been taken nor the concentration consumed.

She described it as “the most potent mind-altering substance there is”.

“You lose your perceptions, your senses become confused, your senses of colour and sound become distorted,” she said.

“It’s possible to think you can actually fly. That’s well-recorded with this drug,” she added.

She said effects typically start within 30 to 90 minutes of taking the drug and last between three and 12 hours.

The inquest continues.

Minimum alcohol pricing in Scotland to start in May

alcohol on sale in EdinburghImage copyright PA
Image caption The policy is largely aimed at cheap, high-strength alcohol in supermarkets and off-licenses

Scotland will introduce minimum pricing for alcohol on 1 May next year, the Scottish government has announced.

The move will raise the cost of the strongest, cheapest alcohol by setting a minimum price per unit.

Health Secretary Shona Robison told MSPs that she expected the price to be set at 50p-per-unit, but this will be subject to a consultation.

She said the measure was needed to tackle the “devastation” caused by cheap, high-strength alcohol.

The 50p-per-unit minimum would raise the price of the cheapest bottle of red wine (9.4 units of alcohol) to £4.69, while a four-pack of 500ml cans of 4% lager (8 units) would cost at least £4 and a 70cl bottle of whisky (28 units of alcohol) could not be sold for less than £14.

Normal strength cider (5% ABV) would cost at least £2.50 a litre but a super-strength version (7.5% ABV) would have to cost a minimum of £3.75 for a litre.

Key weapon

Minimum pricing is largely aimed at cheap lager, cider and spirits sold in supermarkets and off-licenses.

But it would leave more expensive drinks unaffected, and is unlikely to impact on sales in pubs and clubs.

The Scottish government views the measure as a key weapon in the battle against binge drinking, with people in Scotland said to buy 20% more alcohol on average than those in England and Wales.

Alcohol Focus Scotland research from last year suggested that the maximum recommended weekly intake of alcohol – 14 units – could be bought for just £2.52.

  • £13.13 Vodka (70cl bottle at 37.5% ABV)

  • £1 Lager (500ml can at 4% ABV)

  • £2.50 Cider (1 litre bottle at 5% – normal strength)

  • £4.69 Red wine (75cl bottle at 12.5% ABV)

The Scottish Parliament passed the minimum pricing legislation five years ago but it was tied up in a legal challenge by the Scotch Whisky Association (SWA) until last week, when the Supreme Court ruled that it did not breach EU law.

Judges ruled unanimously that the policy was a “proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim” – with the SWA agreeing to pay the Scottish government’s legal costs.

Minimum pricing has been broadly welcomed by health bodies and alcohol awareness groups, who say it will target the kind of drinking that leads to the greatest harm.

There were 1,265 alcohol-related deaths in Scotland last year, an increase of 10% on 2015 – figures which Ms Robison described as “completely unacceptable”.

Speaking in the Scottish Parliament, she said: “Behind every one of these statistics is a person, a family and a community.

“With alcohol on sale today at just 18p a unit, we have to act to tackle the scourge of cheap, high-strength drink that causes so much damage.”

Ms Robison said research had shown that a minimum unit price of 50p would cut alcohol-related deaths by 392 and hospital admissions by 8,254 over the first five years of the policy.

She added: “I anticipate setting the minimum unit price at 50p per unit. We now want to hear from retailers, representative bodies and Licensing Standards Officers about the practicalities of implementation.”